Nearly all patients were given CBD 25 mg/d in capsule form. If anxiety complaints predominated, the dosing was every morning, after breakfast. If sleep complaints predominated, the dosing was every evening, after dinner. A handful of patients were given CBD 50 mg/d or 75 mg/d. One patient with a trauma history and schizoaffective disorder received a CBD dosage that was gradually increased to 175 mg/d.
The sampling frame consisted of 103 adult patients who were consecutively treated with CBD at our psychiatric outpatient clinic. Eighty-two (79.6%) of the 103 adult patients had a documented anxiety or sleep disorder diagnosis. Patients with sole or primary diagnoses of schizophrenia, posttraumatic stress disorder, and agitated depression were excluded. Ten patients were further excluded because they had only 1 documented visit, with no follow-up assessment. The final sample consisted of 72 adult patients presenting with primary concerns of anxiety (65.3%; n = 47) or poor sleep (34.7%; n = 25) and who had at least 1 follow-up visit after CBD was prescribed.
Many different cultures have used the Cannabis plant to treat a plethora of ailments. Practitioners in ancient China targeted malaria, menstrual symptoms, gout, and constipation. During medieval times, cannabis was used for pain, epilepsy, nausea, and vomiting, and in Western medicine it was commonly used as an analgesic.4,5 In the US, physicians prescribed Cannabis sativa for a multitude of illnesses until restrictions were put in place in the 1930s and then finally stopped using it in 1970 when the federal government listed marijuana as a Schedule I substance, claiming it an illegal substance with no medical value. California was the first state to go against the federal ban and legalize medical marijuana in 1996.6 As of June 2018, 9 states and Washington, DC, have legalized recreational marijuana, and 30 states and Washington, DC, allow for use of medical marijuana.7 The purpose of the present study is to describe the effects of CBD on anxiety and sleep among patients in a clinic presenting with anxiety or sleep as a primary concern.
Design and Procedures
The average age for patients with anxiety was 34 years (range = 18–70 years) and age 36.5 years for patients with sleep disorders (range = 18–72 years). Most patients with an anxiety diagnosis were men (59.6%, 28/47), whereas more sleep-disordered patients were women (64.0%, 16/25). All 72 patients completed sleep and anxiety assessments at the onset of CBD treatment and at the first monthly follow-up. By the second monthly follow-up, 41 patients (56.9%) remained on CBD treatment and completed assessments; 27 patients (37.5%) remained on CBD treatment at the third monthly assessment.
Deidentified patient data were evaluated using descriptive statistics and plotted graphically for visual analysis and interpretation of trends.
To determine whether CBD helps improve sleep and/or anxiety in a clinical population.
Given the promising biochemical, physiologic, and preclinical data on CBD, a remarkable lack of randomized clinical trials and other formal clinical studies exist in the psychiatric arena. The present study describes a series of patients using CBD for treatment of anxiety or sleep disturbances in a clinical practice setting. Given the paucity of data in this area, clinical observations can be quite useful to advance the knowledge base and to offer questions for further investigation. This study aimed to determine whether CBD is helpful for improving sleep and/or anxiety in a clinical population. Given the novel nature of this treatment, our study also focused on tolerability and safety concerns. As a part of the evolving legal status of cannabis, our investigation also looked at patient acceptance.
Michael Eisenstein is a freelance writer in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
Despite its promise, CBD’s impact as a drug has been mixed. Importantly, it is relatively safe. The side effects most commonly associated with a high dose of Epidiolex include digestive problems, rash and drowsiness, as well as the potential for liver damage in patients taking certain other medications. For example, Devinsky notes that patients who are receiving valproic acid to treat seizures or migraines might be at an elevated risk. But in many of the CBD trials conducted so far — particularly in the realm of antipsychotic drugs, which are known for their strong side effects — CBD has proved more tolerable than existing alternatives. “The side effects weren’t significantly worse than with placebo,” says McGuire of his 2018 study of CBD in people with schizophrenia 10 .
Stuck in the weeds
The regulatory disconnect that surrounds CBD creates an odd situation in which the public can self-medicate using a potentially questionable product, while scientists face a struggle to perform high-quality clinical trials. “The fact that CBD remains schedule 1 in the United States is unconscionable,” says Devinsky. That restrictive classification, he says, “is impairing research”.
Psychosis — particularly in the context of schizophrenia — is one such area of promise. In 1995, Zuardi and Mechoulam reported the case of a person with schizophrenia who experienced meaningful relief from their symptoms when treated with high doses of CBD 9 . Several subsequent small-scale clinical studies detected similar hints of efficacy. In their groundbreaking trial 3 , Leweke and his colleagues put the compound through a particularly rigorous test by comparing its effects with those of amisulpride, a potent medication for schizophrenia. “We saw a significant decrease in symptoms over time for both compounds, and CBD beat amisulpride in terms of side effects, by far,” Leweke says. The team also found a clue to the mechanism by which CBD might exert its antipsychotic effects: treatment with CBD was associated with elevated levels of anandamide, a cannabinoid produced by the body that seems to offer protection from psychosis.
Research on CBD in the 1970s and 1980s focused on its interplay with other cannabinoids, and particularly THC. “Whereas THC can induce psychotic symptoms, impair cognition and make people anxious, CBD appears to do the opposite,” says Philip McGuire, a psychiatrist at King’s College London.